A medium-sized, slender plethodontid averaging 10.2–16.0 cm (4.0–6.3 in) total length (TL) with a record TL of 19.8 cm (7.8 in). Body coloration is orangish brown to orangish yellow with black, round or asymmetrical spots arranged in an irregular pattern on the dorsal and lateral areas of the head, body, and legs. Belly coloration is similar to body color but paler and lacks markings. The tail is long, comprising 60-65% of the total body length in adults, and is laterally compressed, patterned with black vertical markings resembling a herringbone pattern. There are 13–14 costal groves present.
Sex determination can be difficult, especially when individuals are not sexually active. Females are the larger sex, and ovum are visible through the abdominal wall when gravid. Cirri are present in both sexes, but enlarged in sexually active males. The mental gland is also visible in sexually active males appearing as a small pale circular patch under the chin.
Long-tailed salamanders typically inhabit forested areas of limestone or shale deposits that contain spring seepages, streams, and spring-fed ponds of relatively good water quality.
- White, JF, and AW White. 2007. Amphibians and Reptiles of Delmarva. Tidewater Publishers, Centerville, MD.
- Petranka, JW. 1998. Salamanders of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washtington, DC.