Non-Venomous - Considered harmless to humans.
Adults 51–142 cm (20–56 in)average total length (TL). A medium large snake with smooth shiny scales in 31 or 29 rows at mid body. The anal plate is not divided, the snout is slightly elongated, and the lower jaw is inset.
The basic coloration and pattern is composed of an average of 55 dark brown body blotches with darker blackish colored borders over a light brown or tan ground color. The total number of blotches can vary from 41–69. The venter itself is usually a uniform cream or white in color. There is a dark mask-like line that bridges the top of the head from eye to eye and runs from the eye to the angle of the jaw on each side of the head. This race is generally darker in color than the other subspecies.
In areas where the range of the Kansas Glossy Snake Arizona elegans elegans overlaps that of the Texas Glossy Snake Arizona elegans arenicola distinction between the subspecies can usually be made by comparing the number of scales at mid body and the number of body blotches. The Texas Glossy Snake has a higher scale count of 29-35, averaging 32 scales per row at mid body, and the body blotch average is 50.
The Kansas Glossy Snake Arizona elegans elegans is categorized as an eastern or long-tailed form with its tail accounting for approximately 14% if its TL (snout to tip of tail).
- Texas Glossy Snake, Arizona elegans arenicola
- Bull Snake, Pituophis catenifer sayi
- Texas Night Snake, Hypsiglena jani texana
Quick ID Notes
- Glossy Snakes have smooth shiny dorsal scales and round pupils.
- Gopher Snakes have keeled dorsal scales and round pupils.
- Night Snakes have smooth shiny dorsal scales and vertical pupils.
Historical occurrence: From extreme southwestern Utah, eastern Colorado and western Kansas, southward through the Texas panhandle, west Texas, eastern New Mexico and northeastern Mexico.
May be found in a variety of habitats including, prairie land, sagebrush flats, grasslands, pasture lands and near agricultural fields. Prefers areas of soft or sandy soil.
Glossy Snakes in general are very secretive nocturnal animals that are almost never seen active in the daytime. They are excellent burrowers and spend the daylight hours in burrows, under rocks, under artificial cover or buried in soft soil.
Emergence from winter hibernation occurs as the weather warms in May with fall disappearance occurring in September. Glossy Snakes in general are very docile when handled, and seldom attempt to bite when captured.
Oviparous. Females may deposit up to 24 eggs averaging 6.9 cm (2.75 in) long. The young hatch in September and Early October and measure 24-28 cm (9.5-11 in) TL.
A constrictor feeding primarily on lizards and small rodents.
Meaning of Scientific Name
- Areo (Latin) to be dry + Zona (Latin) belt of earth, zone. Alternate meaning; Arizonac (American Indian) place of springs, ref. Arizona region.
- (Latin) fine or elegant.
No known listings.
The Kansas Glossy Snake was formerly recognized as Arizona elegans blanchardi, named by L. M. Klauber in 1946 in honor of the noted herpetologist Frank Nelson Blanchard (1888-1937)
Glossy Snakes from the western U.S. are considered to be short-tailed forms, meaning that in proportion to their overall body length, they have tails shorter than their eastern counterparts. The short-tailed forms include the California Glossy Snake Arizona elegans occidentalis, Arizona Glossy Snake Arizona elegans noctivaga, Desert Glossy Snake Arizona elegans eburnata, and Mojave Glossy Snake Arizona elegans candida. The eastern long-tailed forms include the Texas Glossy Snake Arizona elegans arenicola, Kansas Glossy Snake Arizona elegans elegans, Chihuahuan Glossy Snake Arizona elegans expolita, and Painted Desert Glossy Snake Arizona elegans philipi.
It has been proposed to split Arizona elegans into two distinct species. The short-tailed western Glossy Snakes would become Arizona occidentalis, and the eastern long-tailed forms would remain Arizona elegans. Currently, NAFHA recognizes all North American Glossy Snake species as Arizona elegans with the exception of the Peninsular Glossy Snake Arizona pacata.
- Wright, Albert Hazen & Anna Allen Wright. Handbook of Snakes of the United States and Canada. Cornell University Press. 1957
- Tennant, Alan. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Lone Star Books, 2003
- Beltz, Ellin. Scientific and Common Names of the Reptiles and Amphibians of North America - Explained, http://ebeltz.net/herps/etymain.html, 2006